HAPPY FOREVER

Амжилт бол аз жаргалын түлхүүр биш, харин аз жаргал бол амжилтын түлхүүр хэрэв та хийж байгаа зүйлдээ дуртай бол амжилтанд хүрэх болно.

Англи хэлний дүрэм-1

Гадаад хэл бол өнөөдрийн цаг үед хамгийн чухал зүйлсийн нэг яах аргагүй мөн. Та аль ч салбарт ажилладаг байсан ялгаагүй дэлхий ертөнцтэй хөл нийлүүлэн алхахыг хүсвэл олон улсын хэмжээнд хэрэглэгддэг хэлийг сурах нь зайлшгүй шаардлагатай. Ялангуяа олон улсын хэрэглээ болсон англи хэлийг нэн түрүүнд сурах хэрэгтэй. Ямар ч хэлийг эхлэн суралцаж байгаа хүн тухайн хэлнийхээ дүрмийн зохих мэдлэгтэй байх шаардлагатай. Иймээс англи хэлийг шамдан суралцаж байгаа охид, залуустаа дүрмийн мэдлэгт нь тус болохуйц англи хэлний дүрмээс цуврал болгон хүргэхээр шийдлээ.
Нэр үг
Нэр үг нь хүн, юм, байр, газар, орон, үйл явдал, санаа бодол зэрэг ойлголтыг нэрлэх үүрэгтэй үг юм. Нэр үгийг дотор нь 2 ангилна.
- Оноосон
- Ерийн
        * Тоологдох
        * Тоологдохгүй
Оноосон нэр
Аливаа хүн, эд юмст оноож өгсөн нэрийг хэлнэ. Ж нь:
            - USA
            - Jargal
            - Seoul
Ерийн нэр
Хүн, юм, газар орон зэргийг ерөнхийд нь нэрлэнэ.
            - student
            - country
            - mountain
            - bag
1. Тоологдох нэр үг
- book
- teacher
Ганц тоонд байвал өмнөө эс тухайлах ялгац (a, an) гишүүнтэй эсвэл төлөөний үгийн (each, every) дараа байна.
Олон тоонд бол төлөөний үгс many, few, both, these, those, several –ийг өмнө нь хэрэглэнэ.
2. Тоологдохгүй нэр үг
- salt
- water
- weather
- travel
Энэ нэр үг нь олон тоонд хэрэглэгдэхгүй бөгөөд өмнө нь тэг ялгамж (0), тухайлах ялгамж (the), this, that, much, little зэрэг үгстэй хэрэглэгдэнэ.
Нэр үгийн олон тоо
Олон тоонд нэр үгийг үүсгэхдээ “-s” төгсгөл залгана.
car – cars book –books
Харин доорх төгсгөлтэй бол “-es” төгсгөл залгана.
-s, -ch, -thc, -o, -ss, -sh, -x
Хавсрал нэр (Тэмдэг нэр)
Тэмдэг нэр буюу хавсрал нэр нь хүн, юмсын шинжийг тодорхойлох буюу чанарыг илэрхийлдэг. Ихэнх хавсрал нэр нь нэр үгийн өмнө орж тэр үгийг тодотгодог.

1
Чанарын
Good, big, long, black. Soft, expensive
2
Харьцангуй
Wooden, golden, sodden
3
Эзэмших
My, his, our, their
4
Заах
This, that, these, those
5
Асуух
What, which, whose
6
Тооны
One, twenty-five, some, any, many, much, little, few
7
Түгээх
All, every, either гэх мэт

Хавсрал нэрийн зэрэг

Зөвшөөх
Харьцангуй
Давуу
-er
-est
Богино үет
long
longer
The longest
Урт үет
beautiful
More beautiful
The most beautiful
Дүрэм бус
good
better
The best

Төлөөний үгс

Биеийн төлөөний
Хамаатуулах төлөөний үгс
Эгэх ба хүч нэмэх
Personal Pronouns
Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns
Reflexive Pronouns
subject
object
adjective
pronoun
I
me
my
mine
myself
you
you
your
yours
yourself
he
him
his
his
himself
she
her
her
hers
herself
it
it
its
its
itself
we
us
our
ours
ourselves
you
you
your
yours
yourselves
they
them
their
theirs
themselves

I –би Me –надад, намайг; my –миний
mine –минийх, myself -өөрийгөө, өөрийгөө
a. Peter and his sister.
b. Jane and her father.
c. Do you know where your books are?
d. Is this their picnic? No, it is ours.
e. I think this is your passport. Yes, it is mine.
- Заах төлөөний үгс

Ойр
Хол
Ганц тоо
This –энэ
That –тэр
Олон тоо
These -эдгээр
Those–тэдгээр

This car looks cleaner than that one.
Do you remember that wonderful day in June?
Is this your bag?
Are these bags yours?
- Үйлдэлдэх төлөөний үгс
Each other – нэг нэгнээ, One another -өөр нэгнийг
Ж нь: We know each other very well – Бид бие биенээ тун сайн мэднэ.
- Асуух төлөөний үгс
Who –хэн
Use: Asking about people
Examples: Who do you like?
Who studies Russian?
What –юу
Use: Asking about things or activities
Examples: What does he do at weekends?
What is that?
What kind of / type of –ямар төрлийн
Use: Asking about specific things or characteristics
Examples: What type of car do you drive?
What kind of person is he?
What time –хэдэн цаг
Use: Asking for a specific time
Examples: What time is it?
What time does the show begin?
What ... ямар
Use: Asking about characteristics
Examples: What was the weather like?
What is Mary like?
When –хэзээ
Use: Asking about general or specific times
Examples: When do you like going out?
When does the bus leave?
Where –хэзээ
Use: Asking about places
Examples: Where do you live?
Where did you go on vacation?
How - хэр ...
Use: Combined with many words to ask questions about specific characteristics, qualities, quantities, etc.
Examples: How often do you go to the movies?
How long was the film?
How much does it cost?
Which –аль
Use: Asking to specify a thing or person from a number of things or people
Examples: Which book did you buy?
Which boy won the race?
- Холбох ба нэгтгэх төлөөний үг
What –юу, ямар
Who -хэн
Whom –хэнд, хэнийг
Which –аль, ямар
That –гэж, гэдгийг
Холбох төлөөний үгс нь УНӨ-ийн тодотгол гишүүн өгүүлбэрийг гол өгүүлбэртэй холбож өгдөг. Ж нь:
· He went back to the house. (Which house?) The house which stood on the corner. = He went back to the house which stood on the corner.
He said that he would come soon.
· I know who lives here.
· Do you know what he likes?
· He couldn't remember which film he had seen.
· That's the man whose wife works in my office.
· Tell me which coffee you like.
· The woman whose dog bit you is at the door.
- Тодорхойгүй төлөөний үгс
many –олон much - их
a few –цөөн little - бага
a lot –олон, их (of) all – бүх, бүгд
both –хоёул every - бүр
other –нөгөө, өөр, бусад another - өөр, бас нэг
either –аль нэг, аль нь ч neither – аль нь ч биш
no –ямар ч биш /үгүй/ one – хэн нэгэн
most –ихэнх half – хагас /нь/
several –хэд хэдэн each –бүр, нэг бүр, тус бүр
none –хэн ч, юу ч
some –хэдэн, жаахан, зарим, бага зэрэг
any –ямар нэг, аль ч, дурын /асуух ба үгүйсгэх өгүүлбэрт/
Тоологдох ба тоологдохгүй нэр үгтэй хэрэглэгдэх үгс
Some can only go with countable nouns (friends, cups, people), and some can only go with uncountable nouns (sugar, tea, money, advice). The words in the middle column can be used with both countable and uncountable nouns.
Зөвхөн тоологдохгүй үгтэй хэрэглэгдэнэ.
Тоо-х болон тоо-хгүй үгэнд хэрэглэгдэнэ.
Зөвхөн тоологдох үгтэй хэрэглэгдэнэ.
How much?
How much? or How many?
How many?
a little
no/none
a few
a bit (of)
not any
a number (of)
-
some (any)
several
a great deal of
a lot of
a large number of
a large amount of
plenty of
a great number of
-
lots of
-
+ noun (нэр үг)
Note: much and many are used in negative and question forms.
Example:
· How much money have you got?
· How many cigarettes have you smoked?
· There's not much sugar in the cupboard.
· There weren't many people at the concert.
They are also used with too, (not) so, and (not) as :
There were too many people at the concert - we couldn't see the band.
It's a problem when there are so many people.
There's not so much work to do this week.
In positive statements, we use a lot of:
· I've got a lot of work this week.
· There were a lot of people at the concert.
A few and few, a little and little
These expressions show the speaker's attitude towards the quantity he/she is referring to. A few (for countable nouns) and a little (for uncountable nouns) describe the quantity in a positive way:
· "I've got a few friends" (= maybe not many, but enough)
· "I've got a little money" (= I've got enough to live on)
Few and little describe the quantity in a negative way:
· Few people visited him in hospital (= he had almost no visitors)
· He had little money (= almost no money)
Some and Any
Some and any are used with countable and uncountable nouns, to describe an indefinite or incomplete quantity.
Some is used in positive statements:
· I had some rice for lunch
· He's got some books from the library.
It is also used in questions where we are sure about the answer:
· Did he give you some tea? (= I'm sure he did.)
· Is there some fruit juice in the fridge? (= I think there is)
Some is used in situations where the question is not a request for information, but a method of making a request, encouraging or giving an invitation:
· Could I have some books, please?
· Why don't you take some books home with you?
· Would you like some books?
Any is used in questions and with not in negative statements:
· Have you got any tea?
· He didn't give me any tea.
· I don't think we've got any coffee left.
More examples:
SOME in positive sentences.
a. I will have some news next week.
b. She has some valuable books in her house.
c. Philip wants some help with his exams.
d. There is some butter in the fridge.
e. We need some cheese if we want to make a fondue.
SOME in questions:
a. Would you like some help?
b. Will you have some more roast beef?
ANY in negative sentences
a. She doesn't want any kitchen appliances for Christmas.
b. They don't want any help moving to their new house.
c. No, thank you. I don't want any more cake.
d. There isn't any reason to complain.
ANY in interrogative sentences
a. Do you have any friends in London?
b. Have they got any children?
c. Do you want any groceries from the shop?
d. Are there any problems with your work?
Compound nouns made with SOME, ANY and NO
           Some +
           Any +            -thing      -body    -one     -where
           No +
Positive statements:
· Someone is sleeping in my bed.
· He saw something in the garden.
· I left my glasses somewhere in the house.
Questions:
· Are you looking for someone? (= I'm sure you are)
· Have you lost something? (= I'm sure you have)
· Did you go anywhere last night?
Negative statements:
· She didn't go anywhere last night.
· He doesn't know anybody here.
NOTICE that there is a difference in emphasis between nothing, nobody etc. and not ... anything, not ... anybody:
· I don't know anything about it. (= neutral, no emphasis)
· I know nothing about it (= more emphatic, maybe defensive)
More examples:
SOMETHING, SOMEBODY, SOMEWHERE
a. I have something to tell you.
b. There is something to drink in the fridge.
c. He knows somebody in New York
d. Susie has somebody staying with her.
e. They want to go somewhere hot for their holidays.
f. Keith is looking for somewhere to live.
ANYBODY, ANYTHING, ANYWHERE
a. Is there anybody who speaks English here?
b. Does anybody have the time?
c. Have you anything to say?
d. He doesn't have anything to stay tonight.
NOBODY, NOTHING, NOWHERE
a. There is nobody in the house at the moment
b. When I arrived there was nobody to meet me.
c. I have learnt nothing since I began the course.
d. There is nowhere as beautiful as Paris in the Spring.
ANY can also be used in positive statements to mean 'no matter which', 'no matter who', 'no matter what':
Examples:
a. You can borrow any of my books.
b. They can choose anything from the menu.
c. You may invite anybody to dinner, I don't mind.
Тоо хэмжээг тодорхойлогчийн зэрэг
Many а more а most
Examples:
· There are many people in England, more in India, but the most people live in China.
· Much time and money is spent on education, more on health services but the most is spent on national defence.
· Few rivers in Europe are not polluted.
· Fewer people die young now than in the seventeenth century.
· The country with the fewest people per square kilometre must be Australia.
· Scientists have little hope of finding a complete cure for cancer before the year 2,000.
· She had less time to study than Paul but had better results.
Enough + Noun
Enough is placed before the noun, to indicate the quantity required or necessary:
  • There is enough bread for lunch.
  • She has enough money.
Enough is also used with adjectives and adverbs - see these sections.
  • We didn't have enough time to visit London Bridge.
  • Are there enough eggs to make an omelette?
Тархацууд
EACH, EVERY, EITHER, NEITHER
Each is a way of seeing the members of a group as individuals:
· Each child received a present.
· Each of the children received a present.
Every is a way of seeing a group as a series of members:
· Every child in the world deserves affection.
It can also express different points in a series, especially with time expressions:
· Every third morning John goes jogging.
· This magazine is published every other week.
Either and Neither are concerned with distribution between two things - either is positive, neither is negative:
· Which chair do you want? Either chair will do.
· I can stay at either hotel, they are both good
· There are two chairs here. You can take either of them.
Ялгааг илэрхийлэх үгс
OTHER, ANOTHER
These words refer to something different, remaining, or additional.
They are placed before the noun.
Another is used with singular nouns, other with singular or plural.
· There are other jobs you could try.
· Where's the other packet of cereals?
· Is there any other bread?
· Have another cup of tea.
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11 сэтгэгдэл:

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omido (зочин)

baylalaa, goe huraangui yum bn shd

missha (зочин)

thanks taalgdlaaaa...amjilt husii

Зочин (зочин)

yooy thanks chamd ymar gool ym be veryyyyyyyyyy thankssssssssssss

tsetseg (зочин)

ih bayarlaj bnoo

miigaa (зочин)

mash ih bayrlalaa ene blogoos bi daaltaa hiilee nom oldohgui netees l yumqa hiih yum daa thank you

nandia (зочин)

thanks
ajilt tani undruus undur amjilt husi

amaraa (зочин)

bayarlalaa nz aa mash heregtei ym baina... chamd amjilt

otgoo (зочин)

ih bayarllaa

санаа (зочин)

энэ унэхээр хэрэг болж чадлаа баярлаа

badmaa (зочин)

ih bayarlalaa hujeeliinhee daalgavarig hj jadlaa

ZULAA (зочин)

NICE yma thank you

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