|1||Чанарын||Good, big, long, black. Soft, expensive|
|2||Харьцангуй||Wooden, golden, sodden|
|3||Эзэмших||My, his, our, their|
|4||Заах||This, that, these, those|
|5||Асуух||What, which, whose|
|6||Тооны||One, twenty-five, some, any, many, much, little, few|
|7||Түгээх||All, every, either гэх мэт|
|Богино үет||long||longer||The longest|
|Урт үет||beautiful||More beautiful||The most beautiful|
|Дүрэм бус||good||better||The best|
|Биеийн төлөөний||Хамаатуулах төлөөний үгс||Эгэх ба хүч нэмэх|
|Personal Pronouns||Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns||Reflexive Pronouns|
b. Jane and her father.
c. Do you know where your books are?
d. Is this their picnic? No, it is ours.
e. I think this is your passport. Yes, it is mine. - Заах төлөөний үгс
|Ганц тоо||This –энэ||That –тэр|
|Олон тоо||These -эдгээр||Those–тэдгээр|
Do you remember that wonderful day in June? Is this your bag? Are these bags yours? - Үйлдэлдэх төлөөний үгс Each other – нэг нэгнээ, One another -өөр нэгнийг Ж нь: We know each other very well – Бид бие биенээ тун сайн мэднэ. - Асуух төлөөний үгс Who –хэн Use: Asking about people Examples: Who do you like?
Who studies Russian? What –юу Use: Asking about things or activities Examples: What does he do at weekends?
What is that? What kind of / type of –ямар төрлийн Use: Asking about specific things or characteristics Examples: What type of car do you drive?
What kind of person is he? What time –хэдэн цаг Use: Asking for a specific time Examples: What time is it?
What time does the show begin? What ... ямар Use: Asking about characteristics Examples: What was the weather like?
What is Mary like? When –хэзээ Use: Asking about general or specific times Examples: When do you like going out?
When does the bus leave? Where –хэзээ Use: Asking about places Examples: Where do you live?
Where did you go on vacation? How - хэр ... Use: Combined with many words to ask questions about specific characteristics, qualities, quantities, etc. Examples: How often do you go to the movies?
How long was the film?
How much does it cost? Which –аль Use: Asking to specify a thing or person from a number of things or people Examples: Which book did you buy?
Which boy won the race? - Холбох ба нэгтгэх төлөөний үг What –юу, ямар Who -хэн Whom –хэнд, хэнийг Which –аль, ямар That –гэж, гэдгийг Холбох төлөөний үгс нь УНӨ-ийн тодотгол гишүүн өгүүлбэрийг гол өгүүлбэртэй холбож өгдөг. Ж нь: · He went back to the house. (Which house?) The house which stood on the corner. = He went back to the house which stood on the corner. He said that he would come soon. · I know who lives here. · Do you know what he likes? · He couldn't remember which film he had seen. · That's the man whose wife works in my office. · Tell me which coffee you like. · The woman whose dog bit you is at the door. - Тодорхойгүй төлөөний үгс many –олон much - их
a few –цөөн little - бага a lot –олон, их (of) all – бүх, бүгд both –хоёул every - бүр other –нөгөө, өөр, бусад another - өөр, бас нэг either –аль нэг, аль нь ч neither – аль нь ч биш no –ямар ч биш /үгүй/ one – хэн нэгэн most –ихэнх half – хагас /нь/ several –хэд хэдэн each –бүр, нэг бүр, тус бүр none –хэн ч, юу ч some –хэдэн, жаахан, зарим, бага зэрэг any –ямар нэг, аль ч, дурын /асуух ба үгүйсгэх өгүүлбэрт/ Тоологдох ба тоологдохгүй нэр үгтэй хэрэглэгдэх үгс Some can only go with countable nouns (friends, cups, people), and some can only go with uncountable nouns (sugar, tea, money, advice). The words in the middle column can be used with both countable and uncountable nouns.
|Зөвхөн тоологдохгүй үгтэй хэрэглэгдэнэ.||Тоо-х болон тоо-хгүй үгэнд хэрэглэгдэнэ.||Зөвхөн тоологдох үгтэй хэрэглэгдэнэ.|
|How much?||How much? or How many?||How many?|
|a little||no/none||a few|
|a bit (of)||not any||a number (of)|
|a great deal of||a lot of||a large number of|
|a large amount of||plenty of||a great number of|
|+ noun (нэр үг)|
It's a problem when there are so many people.
There's not so much work to do this week. In positive statements, we use a lot of: · I've got a lot of work this week. · There were a lot of people at the concert. A few and few, a little and little These expressions show the speaker's attitude towards the quantity he/she is referring to. A few (for countable nouns) and a little (for uncountable nouns) describe the quantity in a positive way: · "I've got a few friends" (= maybe not many, but enough) · "I've got a little money" (= I've got enough to live on) Few and little describe the quantity in a negative way: · Few people visited him in hospital (= he had almost no visitors) · He had little money (= almost no money) Some and Any Some and any are used with countable and uncountable nouns, to describe an indefinite or incomplete quantity. Some is used in positive statements: · I had some rice for lunch · He's got some books from the library. It is also used in questions where we are sure about the answer: · Did he give you some tea? (= I'm sure he did.) · Is there some fruit juice in the fridge? (= I think there is) Some is used in situations where the question is not a request for information, but a method of making a request, encouraging or giving an invitation: · Could I have some books, please? · Why don't you take some books home with you? · Would you like some books? Any is used in questions and with not in negative statements: · Have you got any tea? · He didn't give me any tea. · I don't think we've got any coffee left. More examples: SOME in positive sentences.
a. I will have some news next week.
b. She has some valuable books in her house.
c. Philip wants some help with his exams.
d. There is some butter in the fridge.
e. We need some cheese if we want to make a fondue. SOME in questions:
a. Would you like some help?
b. Will you have some more roast beef? ANY in negative sentences
a. She doesn't want any kitchen appliances for Christmas.
b. They don't want any help moving to their new house.
c. No, thank you. I don't want any more cake.
d. There isn't any reason to complain. ANY in interrogative sentences
a. Do you have any friends in London?
b. Have they got any children?
c. Do you want any groceries from the shop?
d. Are there any problems with your work? Compound nouns made with SOME, ANY and NO Some + Any + -thing -body -one -where No + Positive statements: · Someone is sleeping in my bed. · He saw something in the garden. · I left my glasses somewhere in the house. Questions: · Are you looking for someone? (= I'm sure you are) · Have you lost something? (= I'm sure you have) · Did you go anywhere last night? Negative statements: · She didn't go anywhere last night. · He doesn't know anybody here. NOTICE that there is a difference in emphasis between nothing, nobody etc. and not ... anything, not ... anybody: · I don't know anything about it. (= neutral, no emphasis) · I know nothing about it (= more emphatic, maybe defensive) More examples: SOMETHING, SOMEBODY, SOMEWHERE
a. I have something to tell you.
b. There is something to drink in the fridge.
c. He knows somebody in New York
d. Susie has somebody staying with her.
e. They want to go somewhere hot for their holidays.
f. Keith is looking for somewhere to live. ANYBODY, ANYTHING, ANYWHERE
a. Is there anybody who speaks English here?
b. Does anybody have the time?
c. Have you anything to say?
d. He doesn't have anything to stay tonight. NOBODY, NOTHING, NOWHERE
a. There is nobody in the house at the moment
b. When I arrived there was nobody to meet me.
c. I have learnt nothing since I began the course.
d. There is nowhere as beautiful as Paris in the Spring. ANY can also be used in positive statements to mean 'no matter which', 'no matter who', 'no matter what': Examples: a. You can borrow any of my books.
b. They can choose anything from the menu.
c. You may invite anybody to dinner, I don't mind. Тоо хэмжээг тодорхойлогчийн зэрэг Many а more а most Examples: · There are many people in England, more in India, but the most people live in China. · Much time and money is spent on education, more on health services but the most is spent on national defence. · Few rivers in Europe are not polluted. · Fewer people die young now than in the seventeenth century. · The country with the fewest people per square kilometre must be Australia. · Scientists have little hope of finding a complete cure for cancer before the year 2,000. · She had less time to study than Paul but had better results. Enough + Noun Enough is placed before the noun, to indicate the quantity required or necessary:
- There is enough bread for lunch.
- She has enough money.
- We didn't have enough time to visit London Bridge.
- Are there enough eggs to make an omelette?